Bücher, Buchbeiträge, Journals und Papers

SucheErweiterte Suche

Bücher, Buchbeiträge, Journals und Papers (2645 Treffer)

This paper examines how product relatedness and the breadth of technological search affect the path-dependent development of export specialisations across countries documented in prior research. The results of the econometric analysis in this paper show that broader technological search in an industry has a positive impact on the development of comparative advantages in the product lines it exports. The interplay between product relatedness and the scope of technological search has a two-edged character. On the one hand, broader technological search supports adjustments and consolidations of the export baskets on the extensive margin. This contributes to weaken path-dependency. On the other hand, it fosters the competitiveness of products that are related to current export specialisations, and thereby promotes path-dependency on the intensive margin of trade. These results differ across countries with different levels of technological capabilities.
Silvia Scherhaufer, Anna Happenhofer, Ina Meyer, Florian Part, Mark Sommer, Peter Beigl
in: Sardinia 2019 – 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. Proceedings
Buchbeiträge, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, November 2019
The decarbonisation of the energy and mobility sector is in progress, making products such as photovoltaic and wind power plants but also electric vehicles relevant in terms of amounts installed or registered in Austria. These three product groups contain mass relevant components such as metals, glass or plastics but also valuable materials in low quantities which require adequate recycling in terms of resource efficiency and prevention of pollution with harmful substances. This conference paper presents a baseline assessment of main product types and their material composition used in Austria and the current status of recycling.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2019, S.132-140
Two major international frameworks provide landmarks for future development paths: the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement. Monitoring the progress towards achieving the individual goals must take into account a multitude of synergies and trade-offs. In this paper we use composite indices to analyse climate and energy policies in selected EU member countries. These results show that, in general, the improvements regarding energy efficiency, emissions and deployment of renewables have been moderate in the period under observation (2005–2015). This hints at the time needed for restructuring to take place, which underlines the importance of credible political commitments to climate targets, the implementation of ambitious instruments and the need for stability in the guiding frameworks to effectuate substantial changes. In addition, the analysis of the selected countries shows that they are characterised by very specific energy systems (complemented by specific social structures), and this determines the challenges that each country must overcome on the way to decarbonisation and sustainable development. While the SDGs are to be implemented on a global scale, it is necessary to adapt them to the characteristics of a given country or region. Reliable and long-term quantitative data that is comparable across countries or regions and that takes into account the social dimension is required to be able to monitor the overall progress of SGD implementation.
Many countries have reduced the generosity of sickness and disability programs while making them more activating – yet few studies have examined how employment rates have subsequently changed. We present estimates of how employment rates of older workers with poor health in 13 high-income countries changed 2004-7 to 2012-15 using HRS/SHARE/ELSA data. We find that those in poor health in the USA have experienced a unique deterioration: they have not only seen a widening gap to the employment rates of those with good health, but their employment rates fell per se. We find only for Sweden (and possibly England) signs that the health employment gap shrank, with rising employment but stable gaps elsewhere. We then examine possible explanations for the development in the USA: we find no evidence it links to labour market trends, but possible links to the USA's lack of disability benefit reform and wider economic trends.
Family patterns in Western countries have substantially changed across the 1940 to 1990 birth cohorts. Adults born more recently enter more often unmarried cohabitations and marry later, if at all. They have children later and fewer of them; births take place in a non-marital union more often and, due to the declining stability of couple relationships, in more than one partnership. These changes have led to an increasing diversity in family life courses. In this paper, we present a microsimulation model of family life trajectories, which models the changing family patterns taking into account the complex interrelationships between childbearing and partnership processes. The microsimulation model is parameterised to retrospective data for women born since 1940 in Italy, Great Britain and two Nordic countries (Norway and Sweden), representing three significantly different cultural and institutional contexts of partnering and child bearing in Europe. Validation of the simulated family life courses against their real-world equivalents shows that the simulations not only closely replicate observed childbearing and partnership processes, but also give good predictions when compared to more recent fertility indicators. We conclude that the presented microsimulation model is suitable for exploring changing family dynamics and outline potential research questions and further applications.
in: Irmi Seidl, Angelika Zahrnt, Tätigsein in der Postwachstumsgesellschaft
Buchbeiträge, Metropolis, Marburg, August 2019, S.207-225, https://metropolis-verlag.de/Taetigsein-in-der-Postwachstumsgesellschaft/1405/book.do
Die bestehenden europäischen Abgabensysteme sind aus Nachhaltigkeitssicht nicht mehr zeitgemäß. Sie basieren stark auf der Besteuerung der Arbeit, wobei nach wie vor in vielen Abgabensystemen von einem (in der Regel männlichen) Hauptverdiener auf der Basis eines Normalarbeitsverhältnisses und einer weiblichen Zuverdienerin ausgegangen wird. Lenkungssteuern zur Bewältigung der großen Herausforderungen in Klima- und Umweltpolitik werden zu wenig genutzt, und der Beitrag der Abgabensysteme zu verteilungspolitischen Zielsetzungen hat langfristig abgenommen. Um die europäischen Abgabensysteme zukunftsfähig zu machen, ist ein fundamentaler Umbau mit einer Umschichtung der Abgabenlast weg von Arbeitseinkommen hin zu Emissionen bzw. Ressourcen- und Energieverbrauch einerseits sowie zu Vermögen und höheren Einkommen andererseits erforderlich. Wie in kaum einem anderen Politikbereich haben Strukturreformen im Abgabensystem das Potential, die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Nachhaltigkeit gleichzeitig zu adressieren.
Veranstalter: Europäische Ökonomische Vereinigung