Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Universität für Bodenkultur Wien – e-think – Zentrum für Energiewirtschaft und Umwelt – Technische Universität Wien
The Austrian government strives for achieving greenhouse gas neutrality in the transport and the buildings sector by 2040.
Achieving a complete decarbonisation within such a short time period will be challenging for both sectors: in the transport
sector the trend of rising emissions must be reversed; in the building sector the building stock must be thermally improved
and heating systems must completely shift towards renewable energy sources. The introduction of policy instruments to decarbonise
the housing and mobility sectors will entail different effects for different household groups depending on several (socio-economic)
aspects. The (presumed) regressivity of policy instruments (most notably fiscal measures) in these areas very often impedes
an evidence-based discussion on the political level and is used as an argument against the implementation of respective measures.
By linking a macroeconomic model with a vehicle choice model, a transport demand model and a building stock model, in TransFair-AT
we will analyse policy scenarios achieving a full decarbonisation of housing and mobility in Austria by 2040. We will assess
the emission impacts as well as the macroeconomic and distributional effects of policy sets on different household types and
develop measures to compensate vulnerable groups ensuring that the disposable income of disadvantaged household groups is
Mit finanzieller Unterstützung von: Jubiläumsfonds der Oesterreichischen Nationalbank
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
Climate change is one of today's grand challenges. The EU has committed itself to ambitious emission reduction targets: for
2020 and 2030, the EU aims at reducing its greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 by 20 percent and 40 percent, respectively,
for 2050 an emission reduction by at least 80 percent is strived for. For large emitters in industry and energy generation
the EU has established the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005 defining an EU-wide reduction target. Emissions
from other sources, most notably from the household and transport sectors, are instead regulated at EU member countries level
and should be reduced by 30 percent by 2030, with differentiated reduction targets for the individual EU member countries.
To achieve the emission reduction targets in the Non-ETS sectors the issue of carbon pricing has recently gained in momentum
in the political discussion at EU as well as at EU member countries level. The project SoMBI focuses on two research questions:
What are the effects of an EU-wide carbon price for the Non-ETS sectors that allows achieving the 30 percent reduction target
in different EU member countries? What are the effects of different revenue recycling options in the EU member countries?
To answer these questions, we perform a model-based analysis with the new ADAGIO-DYNK model. The CO2 price necessary
to achieve the 30 percent EU-wide reduction target for the Non-ETS sectors is estimated. Also, detailed results for two case
study countries are discussed. The countries (Austria and Poland) differ considerably in terms of the structure of their energy
systems and economies. First, we focus on the macroeconomic, emission and distributional impacts of the tax. Then, the effects
of different revenue recycling options are assessed and policy recommendations for the introduction of a carbon tax are developed.