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Alle WIFO-Publikationen (7 Treffer)

WIFO Working Papers, 2018, (565), 185 Seiten
Online seit: 29.05.2018 0:00
Österreich bietet einen hohen Lebensstandard, der sowohl in überdurchschnittlichen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen und einer im internationalen Vergleich niedrigen Arbeitslosenquote als auch einem geringeren Anteil armutsgefährdeter Personen zum Ausdruck kommt. Der erreichte materielle Wohlstand beruht auf vergangenen Leistungen, stimmt aber auch für die nähere Zukunft optimistisch. Gleichzeitig bestehen hartnäckige Strukturdefizite in Bezug auf wichtige Bestimmungsfaktoren der langfristigen Entwicklung. Beispiele sind die als zu gering empfundene Leistungsfähigkeit des Bildungssystems, hohe Abgaben auf Arbeitseinkommen, als überbordend empfundene Regulierungen, ein geringer Anteil forschungsintensiver Produktionszweige oder die mangelnde Finanzierung von risikoreichen Projekten mit großem Wachstumspotential.
Monographien, August 2015, 183 Seiten
This study has been prepared for the Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME), under Specific Contract ENT-SME-14-F-S107-SI2-698839 implementing the Framework Service Contract ENTR/300/PP/2013/FC-WIFO on "Studies in the Area of European Competitiveness" coordinated by the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO; coordinator: Andreas Reinstaller). This service contract is financed by the EU Programme for the Competitiveness of Enterprises and SMEs (COSME).
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
 
The aim of this study is to analyse the development of new industrial specialisations and the process of export diversification both at the country and the regional level for the EU countries over time. It examines to what extent these processes show path dependent properties, whether persistent development trajectories can be shifted in order to avoid structural traps and what role related and unrelated diversification play for the economic performance of regions. Overall, the results of this report and its policy implications underscore that Smart Specialisation policies require a smooth coordination of a larger set of diverse policy measures that take into account both the local context and all the involved players rather than a perfect setup of single policies. In particular, the educational system, specialisation patterns in research and innovation, and foreign direct investments play a key role in diversification processes and should be a constitutive element of Smart Specialisation policies.
WWWforEurope: Welfare, Wealth and Work for Europe, September 2014, 29 Seiten
Mit finanzieller Unterstützung von: Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft mbH – Österreichische Austauschdienst-GesmbH
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Projekt-Konsortium WWWforEurope
Social scientists have long argued that developed countries are more and more responsible for climate change because they externalise pollution to less developed countries. This paper offers a way to quantify climate responsibility by calculating carbon footprints and carbon balances between regions by means of an input-output analysis. We find that regions in the center of the world economy are increasingly consuming CO2 which was emitted in the periphery. Developed countries exhibit a large emission balance deficit with the less developed economies. Furthermore, we decompose carbon footprint developments between 1995 and 2007 into three effects: technical progress, shifts in the global value chain and increasing final demand. Our results show that the effect of technical progress is overcompensated by the effect of increased consumption and value chain shifts. Footprint growth in the center is strongly linked to additional pollution and technical development in the periphery. These findings challenge the prevailing view of the potential of modernisation and globalisation with regard to climate change.
WIFO Working Papers, 2014, (478), 27 Seiten
Online seit: 10.09.2014 0:00
Social scientists have long argued that developed countries are more and more responsible for climate change because they externalise pollution to less developed countries. This paper offers a way to quantify climate responsibility by calculating carbon footprints and carbon balances between regions by means of an input-output analysis. We find that regions in the center of the world economy are increasingly consuming CO2 which was emitted in the periphery. Developed countries exhibit a large emission balance deficit with the less developed economies. Furthermore, we decompose carbon footprint developments between 1995 and 2007 into three effects: technical progress, shifts in the global value chain and increasing final demand. Our results show that the effect of technical progress is overcompensated by the effect of increased consumption and value chain shifts. Footprint growth in the center is strongly linked to additional pollution and technical development in the periphery. These findings challenge the prevailing view of the potential of modernisation and globalisation with regard to climate change.
WWWforEurope: Welfare, Wealth and Work for Europe, September 2013, 26 Seiten
Studie von: Projekt-Konsortium WWWforEurope
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
The economic crisis has laid open deficiencies in the construction of the European Economic and Monetary Union. At its foundation, it was assumed that monetary integration would reduce the likelihood of asymmetric shocks. The crisis shows, however, that endogenous mechanisms may even amplify existing asymmetries. Without a lender of last resort, a common regulation and supervision of banks, a common fiscal policy and a co-ordinated economic policy the European Monetary Union is incomplete. The European Council and the Commission have proposed reforms for the completion of Economic and Monetary Union. Among these proposals are the implementation of a Banking Union and an integrated economic and fiscal policy. In the long run, national government debt is to be mutualised at the European level. A European fiscal capacity shall be combined with an automatic transfer mechanism between member countries, in order to smooth business cycle differentials. Further proposals are intended to accelerate in future structural reforms by the member countries along the lines of the country-specific recommendations issued by the Commission and the Council. A first step towards creating an integrated Banking Union has been taken by the introduction, albeit in an attenuated version, of a common bank supervision. However, key elements to secure the stability of the euro area are still missing. Measures recently decided under the acute pressure of the crisis ("Six-pack", "Twopack", "Fiscal compact", "Euro-plus Pact") are confined to structural reform and have de-facto suspended the operation of automatic stabilisers in the crisis countries. This severely undermines popular support in debtor and creditor countries alike for Economic and Monetary Union, to the point of jeopardising its existence.
Austrian Economic Quarterly, 2013, 18(3), S.135-148
Online seit: 27.08.2013 0:00
The economic crisis has laid open deficiencies in the construction of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). As a consequence, the European Council and the Commission have proposed reforms for the completion of EMU. In a first step towards an integrated Banking Union, a lighter version of a common bank supervision has been agreed. However, key elements to secure the stability of the euro area are still missing. Measures taken under the acute pressure of the crisis are confined to structural reforms and have de facto suspended the operation of automatic stabilisers in the crisis countries.
Zur Vertiefung der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (Deeper Integration of Economic and Monetary Union)
WIFO-Monatsberichte, 2013, 86(6), S.493-507
Online seit: 25.06.2013 0:00
 
Die Wirtschaftskrise hat Mängel in der Konstruktion der Europäischen Währungsunion offengelegt. Als Folge legten der Europäische Rat und die Kommission Reformen zur Vervollständigung der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion vor. Ein erster Schritt für eine integrierte Bankenunion wurde durch die Schaffung einer abgeschwächten Form der einheitlichen Bankenaufsicht gesetzt. Bisher fehlen jedoch maßgebliche Elemente, um die Stabilität des Euro-Raumes zu sichern. Die Maßnahmen zur Stabilisierung der akuten Krisendynamik beschränken sich auf Strukturreformen und haben de facto eine Ausschaltung der automatischen Stabilisatoren in den Krisenländern zur Folge.

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