Weitere Publikationen der WIFO-Mitarbeiterinnen und -Mitarbeiter
Die umfangreiche Publikationstätigkeit der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des WIFO dokumentiert die enge Vernetzung mit
der internationalen Scientific Community.
We analysed sickness and disability policies for the working-age population in a number of OECD countries, between the years
1990 and 2014. Existing evidence suggests that there has been a broad shift in focus from passive income maintenance to employment
incentives and reintegration policies. We have updated detailed policy scores provided by the OECD to estimate model-based
country clusters. Our results indicate that countries have pursued different types of reforms consisting of a combination
of integration and compensation measures. The reforms of recent decades have led to the emergence of a distinct cluster of
Northern and Continental European countries characterised by a combination of strong employment-oriented policies and comparatively
high social protection levels. An analysis of recent reforms shows a continued expansion of measures that foster employment
as well as instances of retrenchment in the compensation dimension. Diversity of policy settings across country groups, however,
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We analyse different disability policy strategies using policy scores developed by the OECD for the period 1990 to 2007. Applying
model-based and hierarchical agglomerative clustering, we investigate the existence of distinct country clusters, characterised
by particular policy combinations. In spite of common trends in policy re-orientation, our results indicate that the reforms
of the last two decades led to more, not less, heterogeneity between country groups in terms of sickness and disability policy.
A set of Northern and Continental European countries emerges as a distinct cluster characterised by its particular combination
of strong employment-oriented policies and comparatively high protection levels. A qualitative review of policy changes in
the most recent years suggests that the gap between these countries and the rest might have further increased. We embed our
empirical analysis in a theoretical framework to identify the objectives and the main components of a comprehensive disability
policy strategy. The objectives of such a strategy can be subsumed under three headings, representing strategy pillars: prevention
and treatment, protection and insurance, and activation and re-integration. Not all these dimensions are covered equally well
by the OECD policy scores and will have to be further investigated.
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Trade unions will oppose the employment of temporary agency workers if it is a move to replace workers or to curb union power.
Alternatively, trade unions may encourage the employment of agency workers if it leads to higher wages for their members.
Using British data from 1998 and 2004, we find no evidence for a negative association between trade union activity and the
hiring of agency workers. Wages are typically higher in unionised workplaces; however, the trade union premium is lower in
the presence of agency workers. Our results suggest that trade unions cannot effectively oppose the hiring of agency workers.
After three years in college, football players face a trade-off between spending more time in college and pursuing a career
in the National Football League (NFL). We analyse the salaries for rookies in the NFL and instrument the endogenous decision
to enter the professional market with the month of birth (relative age effect). A player enjoys a 6 percent higher starting
salary in the NFL for each additional year with the college team. The returns to education in professional sports are sizeable
and similar to returns to formal education.