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Strukturwandel und Regionalentwicklung

Alle WIFO-Publikationen (1664 Treffer)

WIFO Working Papers, 2019, (580), 20 Seiten
Online seit: 16.04.2019 0:00
Projections show sharp increases in public spending on long-term care services across Europe. However, a purely cost based focus on long-term care services is economically misleading. Private and public expenditure on long-term care services directly and indirectly generate income in the form of salaries, taxes and social security contributions. The aim of this paper is to quantify the economic impact and multipliers of long-term care services for the first time. Based on an econometric regional input-output model for Austria, we estimate the direct, indirect and induced effects of public and private expenditures on value added, employment, taxes and social security contributions. According to our results, each Euro spent on long-term care services is associated with domestic value added of 1.7 € as well as 0,70 € in taxes and social security contributions. The economic multipliers of the long-term care services are comparatively high due to the high share of wages and salaries in direct expenditure and the associated high direct value added. Public expenditure on professional care services should therefore not be regarded merely as a cost factor in the public budget. Rather, this rapidly growing economic sector is also an increasingly important economic factor in a time of ageing societies.
WIFO-Konjunkturtest, März 2019, 12 Seiten
Mit finanzieller Unterstützung von: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
Online seit: 28.03.2019 14:00
Die Ergebnisse des WIFO-Konjunkturtests vom März 2019 zeigen trotz des deutlichen Rückganges gegenüber dem Vorjahr eine weiterhin recht gute Konjunktureinschätzung durch die österreichischen Unternehmen. Die Betriebe beurteilen – ausgehend von einem hohen Niveau – die aktuelle Konjunkturlage etwas ungünstiger als in den Vormonaten. Die Konjunkturerwartungen trüben sich weiter ein. 
 
In Österreich berichten Pflegedienstleister zunehmend über Schwierigkeiten, Pflegepersonal für mobile und stationäre Dienste zu finden. Neben der Frage der künftigen Finanzierung ist die Frage der Sicherstellung ausreichender Personalabdeckung wohl das dringlichste Problem im Pflegebereich. Wie eine Schätzung auf Basis aktueller Projektionen zur Nachfrage nach Pflegedienstleistungen zeigt, werden im Bereich der mobilen und stationären Pflege und Betreuung bis 2030 rund 24.000 (Vollzeitäquivalente: 18.000) und bis 2050 79.000 (Vollzeitäquivalente: 58.000) zusätzliche Pflegekräfte benötigt (Stand 2016: 63.000 bzw. 45.000 Vollzeitäquivalente). Im Mittelpunkt einer Pflegereform müssen deshalb neben Ausbildungs- und Umschulungsoffensiven Maßnahmen stehen, die den Pflegeberuf attraktiver machen.
WIFO-Monatsberichte, 2019, 92(3), 60 Seiten
Online seit: 25.03.2019 0:00
 
Stefan Schiman, Zukunftseinschätzung der Industrie stabilisiert sich • Ulrike Famira-Mühlberger, Matthias Firgo, Zum künftigen Bedarf an Pflegepersonal in den stationären und mobilen Diensten • Jürgen Janger, Projektbasierte Grundlagenforschungsförderung im internationalen Vergleich. Implikationen für eine Exzellenzinitiative in Österreich • Andreas Reinstaller, Produkteinführungen österreichischer Unternehmen und Konjunkturschwankungen
Monographien, März 2019, 141 Seiten
Auftraggeber: Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
Online seit: 21.03.2019 0:00
 
Die Digitalisierung ist als vielseitige Mehrzwecktechnologie der Motor zahlreicher Innovationen. Diese stärken langfristig die Nachfrage und mit dem Wachstum der Wirtschaftsleistung auch die realen Einkommen. Relativ zu den Spitzenreitern liegt Österreich aber hinsichtlich vieler Kennzahlen zur Digitalisierung zurück, wie z. B. die im internationalen Vergleich geringere private Nutzung modernster Breitbanddienste zeigt. In den Unternehmen erfolgt die Digitalisierung im Allgemeinen etwas rascher und entspricht meist dem europäischen Durchschnitt. Für eine gestaltende Rolle im digitalen Wandel wird daher ein bloßes "Mehr" an Investitionen nicht ausreichen, sondern ein breites Spektrum abgestimmter Initiativen (Innovation, Adoption, Ausbildung, Regulierung usw.) notwendig sein.
Laura Varela-Candamio, Fernando Rubiera Morollón, Gohar Sedrakyan
in: Peter Huber, Dieter Pennerstorfer, Digitalization, Urban Sprawl and Regional Economics – Selected Papers of the 10th WIFO Regional Economics Workshop at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, 25-26 September 2017
Empirica, 2019, 46(1), S.177-203, http://www.springer.com/10663
Urban sprawl is rapidly occurring in many Spanish urban areas. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how the trend of building dispersion of new residential areas may be affecting the fiscal stability of local governments in Spain. The wide diversity of the characteristics of Spanish urban areas as well as the existence of very similar local fiscal structures make this case particularly interesting. After delimiting the urban areas and the spatial unit of analysis, a precise index of urban sprawl, calculated with geo-referenced digital cartography, is used. Using the spatially disaggregated information of taxes from the Spanish National Institute for Fiscal Studies allows for a measure of fiscal burden by local areas and the ability to distinguish among types of taxes. Control variables are also available at the local level from the Spanish Census and other databases. Two methods, quantile regressions and ordinary least squares, are used in order to measure not only the average change but the heterogeneity across the distribution of the local fiscal burden associated with the changes in urban sprawl, whilst controlling for other explanatory variables in the model. The results indicate that higher levels of urban sprawl imply higher local fiscal burden. By tax categories, the phenomenon of urban sprawl particularly affects both local indirect and direct taxation. These results suggest that local decision-makers should consider urban planning as one of the fundamental tools to assure long-term local fiscal sustainability.
Stephan Brunow, Luise Pestel, Mark Partridge
in: Peter Huber, Dieter Pennerstorfer, Digitalization, Urban Sprawl and Regional Economics – Selected Papers of the 10th WIFO Regional Economics Workshop at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, 25-26 September 2017
Empirica, 2019, 46(1), S.151-175, http://www.springer.com/10663
The international trade literature highlights the importance of firm productivity and economies of scale on the firm's international export success. In the context of agglomeration economies, firms enjoy productivity gains when they are located close to related firms and they gain from knowledge spill-overs and other positive externalities. They may also benefit from a potentially large supply of diverse workers that possess distinct knowledge and problem-solving skills. In such environments, firms may be more prone to export. In this paper, we employ a comprehensive German data set that combines survey and administrative data. We ask whether German firms (i.e., establishments) export more as a result of localisation and urbanisation externalities, and labour market pooling associated with workforce diversity, while controlling for a variety of establishment characteristics. Using a fractional response model, we provide evidence that manufacturers and smaller establishments benefit more from externalities and especially from knowledge spill-overs. There is less evidence supporting the benefit of workforce diversity; however, that factor may be associated with between-establishment variation.
Julia Bachtrögler, Christoph Hammer, Wolf Heinrich Reuter, Florian Schwendinger
in: Peter Huber, Dieter Pennerstorfer, Digitalization, Urban Sprawl and Regional Economics – Selected Papers of the 10th WIFO Regional Economics Workshop at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, 25-26 September 2017
Empirica, 2019, 46(1), S.103-150, http://www.springer.com/10663
This study presents a new firm- and project-level dataset containing data on over two million projects co-funded by the EU structural and cohesion funds in 25 EU member countries during the programming period 2007-2013. Information on individual beneficiary firms and institutions is linked with business data of Bureau van Dijk's ORBIS database. Moreover, text mining techniques are applied to categorise the EU cohesion policy projects into fifteen thematic categories. Stylised facts reveal substantial regional heterogeneity in the distribution of funds to certain projects and beneficiaries (with respect to their size or industry). Furthermore, regional funds distribution differs across less developed and higher-income as well as urban and rural regions. In an econometric analysis, we control for project and firm characteristics that we expect to determine the single project's value, which is confirmed by the results. Nevertheless, there remains unexplained variation in individual project volumes, which differs systematically across countries.
Georg Hirte, Ulrike Illmann
in: Peter Huber, Dieter Pennerstorfer, Digitalization, Urban Sprawl and Regional Economics – Selected Papers of the 10th WIFO Regional Economics Workshop at the Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, 25-26 September 2017
Empirica, 2019, 46(1), S.63-101, http://www.springer.com/10663
This paper explores the commuting paradox in the context of two-partner households by estimating the relationship between the subjective well-being of spouses and their commuting distances. Some of the former literature has found evidence that individuals are not fully compensated for changes in commuting (the commuting paradox). We study unitary, cooperative, and non-cooperative decision-making models to explore which describes the household decision on commuting in the data. We use panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). The regressions show clear evidence for cooperative household decision making on commuting distances (time) and do not show evidence of the commuting paradox. These results are robust in several robustness checks, including alternative definitions of household utility.
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