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Industrieökonomie, Innovation und internationaler Wettbewerb

Bücher, Buchbeiträge, Journals und Papers (794 Treffer)

Die Europäische Union investiert jährlich mehr als 50 Mrd. € in die Förderung der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Attraktivität europäischer Regionen und Städte. Die EU-Regionalpolitik verfolgt das Ziel, durch gezielte Förderungen zu einer Steigerung des wirtschaftlichen Wachstums, der Beschäftigung und der Lebensqualität in allen europäischen Regionen beizutragen. In diesem Policy Brief wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Bürger und Bürgerinnen in jenen Regionen, in denen die EU-Regionalpolitik zu zusätzlichem Beschäftigungswachstum führt, auch tatsächlich proeuropäischer eingestellt sind und ihre Wahlentscheidung dementsprechend treffen. Untersucht wird die Frage anhand der französischen Präsidentschaftswahl im Jahr 2017 und des Wahlerfolges der euroskeptischen Kandidatin Marine Le Pen sowie des proeuropäischen Kandidaten Emmanuel Macron. Die hier vorgestellten Hauptergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Wähler und Wählerinnen in Regionen, in denen durch die EU-Regionalförderung zusätzliche Beschäftigung generiert wurde, in einem geringeren Ausmaß für Marine Le Pen stimmten.
Buchbeiträge, April 2019, S.65-68
We apply the tradable-nontradable framework to evaluate the lack of convergence in labour productivity among EU Member States. Our results show that increases in overall productivity are primarily due to the tradable and not the nontradable sectors of production. The low productivity growth in peripheral EU countries before the crisis was accompanied by a sharp increase in the production of nontradables (i.e., nontradable goods and services) relative to other EU countries. We identify differences in the legal systems and the quality of public institutions, among others, as factors relevant for explaining the observed productivity growth differentials. Our findings have implications for the European Commission's macroeconomic imbalance procedures since the tradable-nontradable approach allows identifying patterns of real divergence on a disaggregated level.
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Institute of World Economics of the Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Slow post-crisis total factor productivity growth is a significant policy challenge for many European countries in general and for Hungary in particular. This report aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the processes behind productivity growth slowdown in Hungary based on micro data from administrative sources between 2001 and 2016. In particular, the report aims to contribute to four ongoing debates: First, it attempts to document the productivity growth slowdown in detail to uncover potential sources of heterogeneity. The second overarching question, related to frontier and non-frontier firms, is the idea of the so-called duality in Hungary. The concept of duality emphasises the large differences in terms of productivity and wages between globally oriented, often foreign-owned, large firms and the rest of the economy. Duality also refers to the lack of interconnectedness between these two groups of firms, in terms of supplier-buyer linkages and worker flows, which limits positive intergroup spillovers. The third group of questions relates to how efficiently resources are allocated across firms. Similarly to other countries, within-industry productivity differences are at least a magnitude larger than between-industry differences. This implies that the efficiency of the allocation of resources within an industry (i.e., whether more productive firms have access to more labour and capital) matters much for aggregate productivity. Finally, the report is interested in the extent to which sectors and industries differ in terms of productivity and firm dynamics.
This paper analyses the impact of the European Union's Cohesion Policy on firm growth in the programming period 2007-2013 in seven European countries. Results show that Cohesion Policy support promotes firm growth in size (value added and employment) more than in productivity. However, even when the policy is the same and similar projects and beneficiaries are considered, its effectiveness varies across different territorial contexts, among but also within countries. In several cases, the impact of grants on firm growth is larger in regions with lower income or scant endowments of territorial assets, most likely because firms in those regions cannot rely on external assets.
Chapter 10, "Diversification patterns at the regional level and their relationship to regional knowledge capabilities: differences between advanced and less favoured regions" (Andreas Reinstaller and Fabian Unterlass) analyses the relationship between regional capabilities to generate and apply knowledge and changes in industrial specialisation in advanced and less-favoured regions. The results suggest that local technological search and learning reinforce existing specialisation patterns, whereas educational investments weaken path dependence. They reduce the importance of local capabilities to generate comparative advantages and allow tapping into new technologies or industries fostering diversification. Regions with higher educational attainment levels tend also to be more specialised in high-end markets. The educational system therefore plays a key role in diversification processes and should be a constitutive element of S3 policies.
Buchbeiträge, Routledge, London–New York, Jänner 2019, S.227-245
Chapter 13, "Regional structural policies and industrial evolution: evidence from three European case study regions" (Klaus S. Friesenbichler) addresses the question of why some less-favoured regions escaped their structural problems, while others did not. It provides case study evidence on three EU regions that have faced structural challenges at some point in recent history: Styria in Austria, Bucharest Ilfov in Romania and Valencia in Spain. Both regional economic policies and the evolution of the industry structures are discussed against an evolutionary economics background, focusing on path dependence, diversification processes and human capital formation. The findings suggest a series of conclusions for smart specialisation policies aimed at escaping structural lock-ins.
Buchbeiträge, Routledge, London–New York, Jänner 2019, S.204-226
Chapter 12, "Relatedness, diversification and economic performance at the regional level: differences between advantaged and less favoured regions" (Johanna Vogel and Stefan Weingärtner) examines empirically the effect of regional diversification patterns on economic performance in relation to the regional level of economic development in the European Union. It does so using data for a panel of EU regions covering the period from 2008 to 2011. The aim is to investigate whether "related" and "unrelated" diversification (variety) affect economically advantaged and less favoured regions differently, and thus to provide insights for the EU's smart specialisation approach to cohesion policy. The findings highlight the growth-enhancing impact of diversification into unrelated areas of activity in production and knowledge (unrelated variety) for economically less favoured regions.