Die Europäische Union investiert jährlich mehr als 50 Mrd. € in die Förderung der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Wettbewerbsfähigkeit
und Attraktivität europäischer Regionen und Städte. Die EU-Regionalpolitik verfolgt das Ziel, durch gezielte Förderungen zu
einer Steigerung des wirtschaftlichen Wachstums, der Beschäftigung und der Lebensqualität in allen europäischen Regionen beizutragen.
In diesem Policy Brief wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Bürger und Bürgerinnen in jenen Regionen, in denen die EU-Regionalpolitik
zu zusätzlichem Beschäftigungswachstum führt, auch tatsächlich proeuropäischer eingestellt sind und ihre Wahlentscheidung
dementsprechend treffen. Untersucht wird die Frage anhand der französischen Präsidentschaftswahl im Jahr 2017 und des Wahlerfolges
der euroskeptischen Kandidatin Marine Le Pen sowie des proeuropäischen Kandidaten Emmanuel Macron. Die hier vorgestellten
Hauptergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Wähler und Wählerinnen in Regionen, in denen durch die EU-Regionalförderung zusätzliche
Beschäftigung generiert wurde, in einem geringeren Ausmaß für Marine Le Pen stimmten.
We apply the tradable-nontradable framework to evaluate the lack of convergence in labour productivity among EU Member States.
Our results show that increases in overall productivity are primarily due to the tradable and not the nontradable sectors
of production. The low productivity growth in peripheral EU countries before the crisis was accompanied by a sharp increase
in the production of nontradables (i.e., nontradable goods and services) relative to other EU countries. We identify differences
in the legal systems and the quality of public institutions, among others, as factors relevant for explaining the observed
productivity growth differentials. Our findings have implications for the European Commission's macroeconomic imbalance procedures
since the tradable-nontradable approach allows identifying patterns of real divergence on a disaggregated level.
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Institute of World Economics of the Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Slow post-crisis total factor productivity growth is a significant policy challenge for many European countries in general
and for Hungary in particular. This report aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the processes behind productivity
growth slowdown in Hungary based on micro data from administrative sources between 2001 and 2016. In particular, the report
aims to contribute to four ongoing debates: First, it attempts to document the productivity growth slowdown in detail to uncover
potential sources of heterogeneity. The second overarching question, related to frontier and non-frontier firms, is the idea
of the so-called duality in Hungary. The concept of duality emphasises the large differences in terms of productivity and
wages between globally oriented, often foreign-owned, large firms and the rest of the economy. Duality also refers to the
lack of interconnectedness between these two groups of firms, in terms of supplier-buyer linkages and worker flows, which
limits positive intergroup spillovers. The third group of questions relates to how efficiently resources are allocated across
firms. Similarly to other countries, within-industry productivity differences are at least a magnitude larger than between-industry
differences. This implies that the efficiency of the allocation of resources within an industry (i.e., whether more productive
firms have access to more labour and capital) matters much for aggregate productivity. Finally, the report is interested in
the extent to which sectors and industries differ in terms of productivity and firm dynamics.
This paper analyses the impact of the European Union's Cohesion Policy on firm growth in the programming period 2007-2013
in seven European countries. Results show that Cohesion Policy support promotes firm growth in size (value added and employment)
more than in productivity. However, even when the policy is the same and similar projects and beneficiaries are considered,
its effectiveness varies across different territorial contexts, among but also within countries. In several cases, the impact
of grants on firm growth is larger in regions with lower income or scant endowments of territorial assets, most likely because
firms in those regions cannot rely on external assets.
Buchbeiträge, Routledge, London–New York, Jänner 2019, S.159-182
Chapter 10, "Diversification patterns at the regional level and their relationship to regional knowledge capabilities: differences
between advanced and less favoured regions" (Andreas Reinstaller and Fabian Unterlass) analyses the relationship between regional
capabilities to generate and apply knowledge and changes in industrial specialisation in advanced and less-favoured regions.
The results suggest that local technological search and learning reinforce existing specialisation patterns, whereas educational
investments weaken path dependence. They reduce the importance of local capabilities to generate comparative advantages and
allow tapping into new technologies or industries fostering diversification. Regions with higher educational attainment levels
tend also to be more specialised in high-end markets. The educational system therefore plays a key role in diversification
processes and should be a constitutive element of S3 policies.
Buchbeiträge, Routledge, London–New York, Jänner 2019, S.227-245
Chapter 13, "Regional structural policies and industrial evolution: evidence from three European case study regions" (Klaus
S. Friesenbichler) addresses the question of why some less-favoured regions escaped their structural problems, while others
did not. It provides case study evidence on three EU regions that have faced structural challenges at some point in recent
history: Styria in Austria, Bucharest Ilfov in Romania and Valencia in Spain. Both regional economic policies and the evolution
of the industry structures are discussed against an evolutionary economics background, focusing on path dependence, diversification
processes and human capital formation. The findings suggest a series of conclusions for smart specialisation policies aimed
at escaping structural lock-ins.
Buchbeiträge, Routledge, London–New York, Jänner 2019, S.204-226
Chapter 12, "Relatedness, diversification and economic performance at the regional level: differences between advantaged and
less favoured regions" (Johanna Vogel and Stefan Weingärtner) examines empirically the effect of regional diversification
patterns on economic performance in relation to the regional level of economic development in the European Union. It does
so using data for a panel of EU regions covering the period from 2008 to 2011. The aim is to investigate whether "related"
and "unrelated" diversification (variety) affect economically advantaged and less favoured regions differently, and thus to
provide insights for the EU's smart specialisation approach to cohesion policy. The findings highlight the growth-enhancing
impact of diversification into unrelated areas of activity in production and knowledge (unrelated variety) for economically
less favoured regions.