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Industrieökonomie, Innovation und internationaler Wettbewerb

Bücher, Buchbeiträge, Journals und Papers (800 Treffer)

This paper examines how product relatedness and the breadth of technological search affect the path-dependent development of export specialisations across countries documented in prior research. The results of the econometric analysis in this paper show that broader technological search in an industry has a positive impact on the development of comparative advantages in the product lines it exports. The interplay between product relatedness and the scope of technological search has a two-edged character. On the one hand, broader technological search supports adjustments and consolidations of the export baskets on the extensive margin. This contributes to weaken path-dependency. On the other hand, it fosters the competitiveness of products that are related to current export specialisations, and thereby promotes path-dependency on the intensive margin of trade. These results differ across countries with different levels of technological capabilities.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2019, S.132-140
This paper examines how product relatedness and the breadth of technological search affect the path-dependent development of export specialisations across countries documented in prior research. The results of the econometric analysis in this paper show that broader technological search in an industry has a positive impact on the development of comparative advantages in the product lines it exports. The interplay between product relatedness and the scope of technological search has a two-edged character. On the one hand, broader technological search supports adjustments and consolidations of the export baskets on the extensive margin. This contributes to weaken path-dependency. On the other hand, it fosters the competitiveness of products that are related to current export specialisations, and thereby promotes path-dependency on the intensive margin of trade. These results differ across countries with different levels of technological capabilities.
Asymmetric international mobility of highly talented scientists is well documented. We contribute to the explanation of this phenomenon, looking at the "competitiveness" of research universities in terms of being able to attract talented early stage researchers. We propose a new hybrid quantitative-qualitative methodology for comparing the top tier of national higher education systems: We characterise a country's capability to offer attractive entry positions into academic careers building upon the results of a large scale experiment on the determinants of job choice in academia, using a mix of data and expert-based assessment. We examine salary level, quality of life, career perspectives, research organisation, balance between teaching and research, funding and the probability of working with high quality peers. Our results in the form of a job attractiveness index indicate that overall, the US research universities offer the most attractive jobs for early stage researchers, consistent with the asymmetric flow of talented scientists to the USA. By comparison with rankings that use survey results or bibliometric data, our methodology offers the advantage of comparing structures and factors shaping the process of research rather than results of research. The findings are hence directly relevant for policies aiming at improving the attractiveness of research universities.
Die Europäische Union investiert jährlich mehr als 50 Mrd. € in die Förderung der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Attraktivität europäischer Regionen und Städte. Die EU-Regionalpolitik verfolgt das Ziel, durch gezielte Förderungen zu einer Steigerung des wirtschaftlichen Wachstums, der Beschäftigung und der Lebensqualität in allen europäischen Regionen beizutragen. In diesem Policy Brief wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob die Bürger und Bürgerinnen in jenen Regionen, in denen die EU-Regionalpolitik zu zusätzlichem Beschäftigungswachstum führt, auch tatsächlich proeuropäischer eingestellt sind und ihre Wahlentscheidung dementsprechend treffen. Untersucht wird die Frage anhand der französischen Präsidentschaftswahl im Jahr 2017 und des Wahlerfolges der euroskeptischen Kandidatin Marine Le Pen sowie des proeuropäischen Kandidaten Emmanuel Macron. Die hier vorgestellten Hauptergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Wähler und Wählerinnen in Regionen, in denen durch die EU-Regionalförderung zusätzliche Beschäftigung generiert wurde, in einem geringeren Ausmaß für Marine Le Pen stimmten.
Buchbeiträge, April 2019, S.65-68
We apply the tradable-nontradable framework to evaluate the lack of convergence in labour productivity among EU Member States. Our results show that increases in overall productivity are primarily due to the tradable and not the nontradable sectors of production. The low productivity growth in peripheral EU countries before the crisis was accompanied by a sharp increase in the production of nontradables (i.e., nontradable goods and services) relative to other EU countries. We identify differences in the legal systems and the quality of public institutions, among others, as factors relevant for explaining the observed productivity growth differentials. Our findings have implications for the European Commission's macroeconomic imbalance procedures since the tradable-nontradable approach allows identifying patterns of real divergence on a disaggregated level.
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Institute of World Economics of the Research Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Slow post-crisis total factor productivity growth is a significant policy challenge for many European countries in general and for Hungary in particular. This report aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of the processes behind productivity growth slowdown in Hungary based on micro data from administrative sources between 2001 and 2016. In particular, the report aims to contribute to four ongoing debates: First, it attempts to document the productivity growth slowdown in detail to uncover potential sources of heterogeneity. The second overarching question, related to frontier and non-frontier firms, is the idea of the so-called duality in Hungary. The concept of duality emphasises the large differences in terms of productivity and wages between globally oriented, often foreign-owned, large firms and the rest of the economy. Duality also refers to the lack of interconnectedness between these two groups of firms, in terms of supplier-buyer linkages and worker flows, which limits positive intergroup spillovers. The third group of questions relates to how efficiently resources are allocated across firms. Similarly to other countries, within-industry productivity differences are at least a magnitude larger than between-industry differences. This implies that the efficiency of the allocation of resources within an industry (i.e., whether more productive firms have access to more labour and capital) matters much for aggregate productivity. Finally, the report is interested in the extent to which sectors and industries differ in terms of productivity and firm dynamics.
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