Weitere Publikationen der WIFO-Mitarbeiterinnen und -Mitarbeiter
Die umfangreiche Publikationstätigkeit der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter des WIFO dokumentiert die enge Vernetzung mit
der internationalen Scientific Community.
Bücher, Journals und Papers(2407 Treffer)
This paper calculates the carbon footprint of private consumption in the EU 27 by five groups of household income, using a
fully fledged macroeconomic input-output model covering 59 industries and five groups of household income for the EU 27. Due
to macroeconomic feedback mechanisms, this methodology – besides induced intermediate demand – also quantifies: 1. private
consumption induced in the other household groups, 2. impacts on other endogenous final demand components, and 3. negative
feedback effects due to output price effects of household demand. The carbon footprint is calculated separately for the consumption
vector of each of the five income groups. The simulation results yield a non-linear income elasticity of direct and indirect
emissions at each income level: the value of the direct footprint income elasticity decreases from 1.32 (first quintile) to
0.69 (fourth quintile). The value of the indirect footprint income elasticity is always below unity and decreases from 0.89
to 0.62. The results in general reveal a relative decoupling effect: the share of the top income group in income (45 percent)
is much larger than its share in the carbon footprint (37 percent) and vice versa for the bottom income group (6 percent in
income and 8 percent in footprint).
This article investigates the influence of competition on price and product quality among Austrian camping sites, a market
characterised by both horizontal (spatial) and vertical product differentiation. Theoretically, the effect of competition
on quality is ambiguous and depends on the degree of cost substitutability between output and quality. Estimating a system
of equations shows that intense competition has a positive impact on product quality and a negative effect on prices (conditional
on quality). As high quality is associated with high prices, the total effect of competition on prices is rather small.
Do more highly work-engaged managers contribute to firm performance? Leaning on the resource-based view, we propose managerial
work engagement as a resource relevant to firm performance. Data from a representative survey of managers in Bangladesh support
this and illuminate the role of the wider context in predicting work engagement. In less-corrupt environments with a more
humane leadership culture, work engagement is more prevalent. In addition, individual work engagement is driven by firm-level
factors and contributes independently to firm performance. This illustrates the mutual dependency between an individual manager's
work engagement and microeconomic determinants of firm performance.
Journal of Policy Modeling, 2017, (1), S.1-18
In October 2013, the European Commission presented a new indicator intended to capture innovation outputs and outcomes and
thereby "support policy-makers in establishing new or reinforced actions to remove bottlenecks that prevent innovators from
translating ideas into products and services that can be successful on the market". This article aims to evaluate the usefulness
of the new indicator against the background of the difficulties in measuring innovation outputs and outcomes. We develop a
unique conceptual framework for measuring innovation outcomes that distinguishes structural change and structural upgrading
as two key dimensions in both manufacturing and services. We conclude that the new indicator is biased towards a somewhat
narrowly defined "high-tech" understanding of innovation outcomes. We illustrate our framework proposing a broader set of
outcome indicators capturing also structural upgrading. We find that the results for the modified indicator differ substantially
for a number of countries, with potentially wide-ranging consequences for innovation and industrial policies.
We analyse the economic and environmental impacts of different CO2 tax (uniform or progressive) and rebate (reduction of VAT,
social contributions or lump-sum payments) schemes with focus on private consumption (i.e., heating and mobility) as well
as distributional impacts on different household income quintiles in Austria. We use the econometric input-output model DYNK
to investigate these impacts. DYNK is able to consider macroeconomic feedbacks of CO2 taxes and accompanying rebate schemes.
An energy module allows to link production and consumption activities with energy demand and associated GHG emissions and
includes behavioural estimations with regard to energy demand for private household income quintiles that are fully integrated
in the macroeconomic part of the model. First preliminary results indicate that a uniform CO2 tax on fossil fuel use for private
consumption (including a tax rebate on VAT for other commodities) has a weak regressive impact on household incomes. The distributional
impact of CO2 taxes differs between heating and mobility consumption.
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect
them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore
potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an
integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water
interfaces. The IIMF is applied to assess impacts of climatic and socio-economic drivers on agricultural land use (crop choices,
farming practices and fertilisation levels), river flows and the risk for exceedance of environmental quality standards for
determination of the ecological water quality status in Austria. This article also presents model interfaces as well as validation
procedures and results of single models and the IIMF with respect to observed state variables such as land use, river flow
and nutrient river loads. The performance of the IIMF for calculations of river nutrient loads (120 monitoring stations) shows
a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.73 for nitrogen and 0.51 for phosphorus. Most problematic is the modelling of phosphorus
loads in the alpine catchments dominated by forests and mountainous landscape. About 63 percent of these catchments show a
deviation between modelled and observed loads of 30 percent and more. In catchments dominated by agricultural production,
the performance of the IIMF is much better as only 30 percent of cropland and 23 percent of permanent grassland dominated
areas have a deviation of more than 30 percent between modelled and observed loads. As risk of exceedance of environmental
quality standards is mainly recognised in catchments dominated by cropland, the IIMF is well suited for assessing the nutrient
component of the WFD ecological status.