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WIFO-Publikationen und Projektberichte(73 Treffer)

Elisabeth Christen, Michael Pfaffermayr, Yvonne Wolfmayr, Decomposing Service Exports Adjustments along the Intensive and Extensive Margin at the Firm-Level

WIFO Working Papers, 2017, (537), 37 Seiten
Using a panel-data set of Austrian service exporting firms this paper examines the determinants of service exports at the firm-destination country level. We implement a random-effects Heckman sample selection firm-level gravity model as well as a fixed effects Poisson model. Expected firm-level service exports are decomposed into the intensive and extensive margins of adjustment as a response to counterfactual changes. We find market demand to be the key determinant. Results also suggest high service export potentials due to regulatory reform in partner countries within the EU. Adjustments at the extensive margin only play a marginal role. Increasing firm size as well as changes in distance related costs are most effective in developing new export relationships in services.
 
Online seit: 14.06.2017 0:00

Elisabeth Christen, Michael Pfaffermayr, Yvonne Wolfmayr, Internationalisierung von Dienstleistungsunternehmen. Markteintrittsmodus und Beschäftigungseffekte

Projektberichte (in Arbeit), Juli 2016
Technologischer Wandel, die weltwirtschaftliche Verflechtung des Handels und Liberalisierungen im Dienstleistungssektor begünstigten die kontinuierliche Ausweitung des grenzüberschreitenden Handels im tertiären Sektor. In drei Beiträgen untersucht die Studie das Internationalisierungsverhalten von Dienstleistungsunternehmen und dessen Rückwirkungen auf den heimischen Arbeitsmarkt auf Basis von Unternehmensdaten der OeNB und des Hauptverbandes der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger. Wie die Analyse der Bestimmungsfaktoren für die Entscheidung von Unternehmen zur Erschließung ausländischer Märkte über Exporte oder Tochterunternehmen (ausländische Direktinvestitionen) zeigt, engagieren sich produktivere Dienstleistungsunternehmen tendenziell stärker im Export. Die Dienstleistungserbringung vor Ort erfolgt verstärkt in schwächer entwickelten Zielländern, während Handelsrestriktionen und Distanz den Dienstleistungsexport deutlicher hemmen. Steigender Importdruck in einzelnen Dienstleistungsbranchen wirkt sich, so zeigt die Analyse der Beschäftigungsentwicklung in Österreich, negativ auf das Unternehmenswachstum aus und erhöht die Austrittswahrscheinlichkeit von Unternehmen signifikant. Diese Effekte sind stärker, je unproduktiver die Unternehmen und je höher der Wettbewerb aus den ostmitteleuropäischen Ländern sind. Ein wesentlicher Teil des Gesamtbeschäftigungseffektes ist dabei auf den Austritt von Unternehmen zurückzuführen. Wie die Untersuchung der durch internationalen Wettbewerb ausgelösten Beschäftigungsströme in und aus der Arbeitslosigkeit bzw. zwischen Wirtschaftssektoren zeigt, erhöht stärkerer Importdruck die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Arbeitsplatzverlustes. Beschäftigungsströme zwischen Sektoren sind quantitativ gering und vor allem nur in den unternehmensbezogenen Dienstleistungssektoren zu beobachten.
Endbericht zum Jubiläumsfondsprojekt Nr. 15491 (Projektleitung: Michael Pfaffermayr)
 
Mit finanzieller Unterstützung von: Jubiläumsfonds der Oesterreichischen Nationalbank
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung

Sandra Bilek-Steindl, Josef Baumgartner, Jürgen Bierbaumer-Polly, Julia Bock-Schappelwein, Elisabeth Christen, Oliver Fritz, Werner Hölzl, Ulrike Huemer, Michael Klien, Thomas Leoni, Michael Peneder, Silvia Rocha-Akis, Stefan Schiman, Franz Sinabell, Gerhard Streicher, Thomas Url, Yvonne Wolfmayr, Leichte Verbesserung der heimischen Konjunktur. Die österreichische Wirtschaft im Jahr 2015

WIFO-Monatsberichte, 2016, 89(4), S.227-300
   
Das österreichische BIP wuchs 2015 um 0,9%. Damit war gegenüber 2013 und 2014 eine leichte Erholung zu beobachten. Die mäßige Ausweitung der Konsumausgaben und die Wiederbelebung der Investitionstätigkeit stützten das Wachstum. Die internationale Konjunkturschwäche dämpfte die Export- und Industriedynamik. Positive Impulse kamen hingegen vom Handel und Tourismus. Das Arbeitskräfteangebot nahm erneut stärker zu als die Beschäftigung, sodass die Zahl der als vorgemerkten Arbeitslosen vor allem in der ersten Jahreshälfte merklich stieg. Die Arbeitslosenquote erhöhte sich auf 9,1% (2014: 8,4%). Der Rückgang der Energiepreise drückte die Inflationsrate 2015 auf 0,9%.
 
Online seit: 28.04.2016 0:00

Peter Egger, Yvonne Wolfmayr, What Economists Should Know About International Goods Trade Data

WIFO Working Papers, 2014, (475), 49 Seiten
The analysis of bilateral trade flows features prominently in empirical research in international economics. Various different international statistical sources are available for researchers and commonly used. Unfortunately, the data happen to differ quite substantially across the different sources. It is the task of this project to identify those differences, quantify them, and track their origin and to demonstrate the consequences of differences in the data for estimation of fundamental relationships such as the gravity equation. We find the largest discrepancies in a comparison of UN and OECD databases to the IMF and Eurostat trade data. In the most extreme cases the differences to reported trade flows in other data sources amount to as much as 40 billion $ in measured export flows and to as much as 50 billion $ in bilateral "mirrored imports". Most importantly we find that these differences carry over to econometric results in applications of the gravity model, one of the workhorses of empirical trade research. Parameters of key variables such as log bilateral distance, common borders, common language, or a colonial relationship dummy variable vary substantially and do not even have a stable sign when using one database versus the other. Hence, heterogeneous reporting standards across data sources and the inhomogeneous sample coverage have a non-trivial impact on the quantifications of trade costs in empirical research.
 
Online seit: 30.06.2014 0:00

Yvonne Wolfmayr, Elisabeth Christen, Michael Pfaffermayr, Pattern, Determinants and Dynamics of Austrian Service Exports. A Firm-level Analysis

Projektberichte (abgeschlossen), Mai 2013
Most firm-level research on the characteristics and strategies of globalised firms focuses on manufacturing industries while firm-level evidence on trade in services is still rare and has just recently begun to emerge. This study uses a unique dataset of Austrian service exporting firms over a four-year period to add to this literature. We show that service export participation is very low and highly concentrated among a few firms and that service exporters are on average larger and more productive than non-exporters. We also find that firm productivity increases with the number of export markets served. The detailed analysis on the export premium suggests the self-selection of firms as well as learning effects from exporting for export starters. The dynamic analysis reveals that the rate of export exits is high for export starters in the first year of exporting, especially for firms of small size. Movements into and out of exporting are however less frequent than moving into and out of individual markets. Entry and exit of markets (extensive margin) is an important component of overall export flows, especially for less popular markets, overall, however the intensive margin of trade contributes most. Analysis based on a Heckman sample selection specification including firm characteristics as well as the standard gravity variables on geographical characteristics of destination markets confirms this finding. In particular, distance to the destination market, firm productivity as well as destination market characteristics (market size, policy environment) significantly influence the probability of exporting but even more so the volume of service trade flows. Results from the counterfactual analysis suggest that export market growth and policy reforms produce the relatively strongest impact on the entry into new markets. Hence, this decomposition of overall export growth into contributions attributable to the extensive and intensive margin allows for new insights for economic policy.
 
Auftraggeber: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft, Familie und Jugend
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung

Martin Falk, Rahel Falk, Yvonne Wolfmayr (WIFO), Gábor Hunya, Roman Stöllinger (wiiw), Oskar Kowalewski, Tomasz Napiórkowski, Mariusz-Jan Radło, Marzenna Weresa (Warsaw School of Economics), Mark Knell (NIFU), FDI flows and impacts on the competitiveness of the EU industry. Background study for chapter 4 of the European Competitiveness Report 2012

The European Union holds a strong position in global foreign direct investments (FDI), both with respect to inward and to outward FDI. However, the economic and financial crisis has been attended by pronounced declines in both intra-EU FDI flows as well as in the EU's outward FDI flows. This will force more European multinational firms (MNEs) to seek investment opportunities in fast growing emerging markets outside the EU, at the same time as the EU's FDI position is increasingly being challenged by the growing role of developing and emerging economies in the global economy. Likewise, the recent decrease in inward FDI raises the question of what are the main factors influencing the decision to invest in the EU countries and how to boost its attractiveness to investors from non-EU and EU countries. Investment incentives are justified by positive effects of entries and the presence of foreign affiliates on employment, productivity, wages and worker training and the existence of spillover effects to local firms. Likewise, outward FDI is seen as an important engine of economic growth at the same time as there are worries about its possible drawbacks, particularly where the effects of outward FDI on domestic labour markets are concerned. In order to better understand the determinants and impacts of inward and outward FDI in Europe, the study offers analyses of: 1. the factors that influence FDI flows, both location factors driving FDI inflows to the EU countries as well as the firm specific factors that account for the internationalisation of firms in turn; 2. the main trends and patterns of FDI flows at the aggregate, sector and firm level; 3. the direct and indirect effects of inward FDI on domestic firms and the host country in general; 4. the effects of outward FDI on the home country of MNEs.
Carried out within the Framework Service Contract N° ENTR/2009/033
 
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – Wiener Institut für internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche – Warsaw School of Economics – Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education

Yvonne Wolfmayr, Export Performance and Increased Services Content in EU Manufacturing

Projektberichte (abgeschlossen), November 2011
Against the background of the increasing services content of many manufactured goods, the paper attempts to assess the role of (domestically and internationally) purchased services for the relative export performance of countries in a particular manufacturing industry. It estimates an empirical model of export market shares for EU 15 countries and 12 disaggregated manufacturing industries over the period 1995 to 2007. Whereas most traditional explanations are based on the influence of relative costs and technology-related variables, this paper emphasises the importance of services as a determinant of both product quality and the sectors' productivity. The service linkage variables are based on national Input-Output Tables. The analysis finds a positive and highly significant impact of services on export market shares of manufactured goods. Distinguishing between domestically-sourced service inputs and imports results in a robust and highly significant impact of international service linkages, while the analysis finds no impact of domestic service linkages.
7th Framework Programme within the collaborative SERVICEGAP project (244 552) invoving 13 organisations across Europe
 
Auftraggeber: Europäische Kommission

Peter Egger, Yvonne Wolfmayr, What Economists Should Know About International Goods Trade Data

Projektberichte (abgeschlossen), Juli 2011
The analysis of bilateral trade flows features prominently in empirical research in international economics. Various different international statistical sources are available for researchers and commonly used. Unfortunately, the data happen to differ quite substantially across the different sources. It is the task of this project to identify those differences, quantify them, and track their origin and to demonstrate the consequences of differences in the data for estimation of fundamental relationships such as the gravity equation. We find the largest discrepancies in a comparison of UN and OECD databases to the IMF and Eurostat trade data. In the most extreme cases the differences to reported trade flows in other data sources amount to as much as $ 40 billion in measured export flows and to as much as $ 50 billion in bilateral "mirrored imports". Most importantly we find that these differences carry over to econometric results in applications of the gravity model, one of the workhorses of empirical trade research. Parameters of key variables such as log bilateral distance, common borders, common language, or a colonial relationship dummy variable vary substantially and do not even have a stable sign when using one database versus the other. Hence, heterogeneous reporting standards across data sources and the inhomogeneous sample coverage have a nontrivial impact on the quantifications of trade costs in empirical research.
Final Report to the Jubiläumsfonds, Project-No 13355, Co-ordinator: Peter Egger
 
Mit finanzieller Unterstützung von: Jubiläumsfonds der Oesterreichischen Nationalbank
Studie von: Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung

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