Further publications of the WIFO research staff members

The extensive publication activities of the staff members mirror the close links with the international scientific community.

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Books, journals and working papers(2424 hits)

Mark Sommer, Kurt Kratena, The Carbon Footprint of European Households and Income Distribution

This paper calculates the carbon footprint of private consumption in the EU 27 by five groups of household income, using a fully fledged macroeconomic input-output model covering 59 industries and five groups of household income for the EU 27. Due to macroeconomic feedback mechanisms, this methodology – besides induced intermediate demand – also quantifies: 1. private consumption induced in the other household groups, 2. impacts on other endogenous final demand components, and 3. negative feedback effects due to output price effects of household demand. The carbon footprint is calculated separately for the consumption vector of each of the five income groups. The simulation results yield a non-linear income elasticity of direct and indirect emissions at each income level: the value of the direct footprint income elasticity decreases from 1.32 (first quintile) to 0.69 (fourth quintile). The value of the indirect footprint income elasticity is always below unity and decreases from 0.89 to 0.62. The results in general reveal a relative decoupling effect: the share of the top income group in income (45 percent) is much larger than its share in the carbon footprint (37 percent) and vice versa for the bottom income group (6 percent in income and 8 percent in footprint).

Margit Schratzenstaller, Atanas Pekanov, Mehr Pragmatismus, weniger Dogmatismus. Der schwierige, aber nötige Weg zur Vollendung der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion

Das Ende Mai 2017 erschienene Reflexionspapier der Europäischen Kommission zur Vertiefung der Europäischen Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion anerkennt klar die Notwendigkeit weiterer Reformen und einer Vertiefung der Integration, um die WWU zu stärken und krisenfester zu machen. Der Bericht bietet sowohl kurzfristige, bis 2019 umzusetzende Empfehlungen, die auf eine Verbesserung der bestehenden Elemente der WWU abzielen, als auch fundamentale langfristige Überlegungen zur Eurozonen-Architektur. Am umstrittensten ist wohl der Vorschlag einer künftigen makroökonomischen Stabilisierungsfunktion für die Eurozone. Eine Verlagerung stabilisierungspolitischer Aufgaben auf die Ebene der Eurozone würde eine Eurozonen-weite wirtschaftspolitische Perspektive – ähnlich der geldpolitischen Rolle der EZB – stärken und nationalstaatliche Interessen und Aspekte in den Hintergrund drängen. Der vorsichtige Vorschlag der Europäischen Kommission eines "Finanzministeriums" für die Eurozone erscheint durchaus diskussionswürdig. Ein/e Eurozonen-Finanzminister/in müsste allerdings deutlich mehr demokratische Rechenschaftspflicht haben. Die Überlegungen der Europäischen Kommission wären zu ergänzen um konkrete Optionen zur Einführung nachhaltigkeitsorientierter steuerbasierter Finanzierungsquellen für ein Eurozonen-Budget. Auch sind sie zu verzahnen mit der sich derzeit herausbildenden europäischen Säule sozialer Rechte.

Alexander Krenek, Margit Schratzenstaller, Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding: A European Net Wealth Tax

FairTax Working Paper Series, 2017, (10), 44 pages, http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1112261/FULLTEXT01.pdf
The increase of wealth inequality in many EU countries has spurred interest in wealth taxation. While taxes on wealth for a long time have played only a marginal role in the public finance and taxation literature, in the more recent literature a variety of arguments are brought forward in favour of (higher) wealth taxation. Most of these arguments directly or indirectly refer to the potential of wealth taxes to contribute to various dimensions of sustainability, in particular to economic, social, and/or institutional/cultural sustainability. Tax competition has led to an almost complete disappearance of recurrent taxes on personal or corporate net wealth in Europe. EU-wide implementation of a net wealth tax based on harmonised tax provisions may serve as a first step in a longer-term oriented move of the stepwise expansion of net wealth taxes on a global scale. By dealing with non- and under-reporting in the Household and Consumption Survey (HFCS) data set provided by the European Central Bank, we are able to estimate the wealth distribution within 20 EU countries. Applying a progressive household-based tax schedule with a tax rate of 1 percent for net wealth above 1 million € and 1.5 percent for net wealth above 5 million € on these adjusted wealth distributions yields potential tax revenues of 156 billion €, taking into account the behavioural responses of individuals triggered by net wealth taxation. Given the positive sustainability properties of a net wealth tax with regard to economic efficiency and social inclusion, a European net wealth tax offers itself as an interesting candidate for sustainability-oriented tax-based own resources to finance the EU budget.

Dieter Pennerstorfer, Can competition keep the restrooms clean? Price, quality and spatial competition

Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2017, pp.117-136, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2017.02.005
This article investigates the influence of competition on price and product quality among Austrian camping sites, a market characterised by both horizontal (spatial) and vertical product differentiation. Theoretically, the effect of competition on quality is ambiguous and depends on the degree of cost substitutability between output and quality. Estimating a system of equations shows that intense competition has a positive impact on product quality and a negative effect on prices (conditional on quality). As high quality is associated with high prices, the total effect of competition on prices is rather small.

Fanny Dellinger, Margit Schratzenstaller, Sustainability-oriented Future EU Funding: A European Nuclear Power Tax

FairTax Working Paper Series, 2017, (9), 38 pages, http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1094210/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Nuclear power plays an important role in Europe's energy mix today. Considering the manifold environmental and health hazards related to all phases of nuclear power production which may cause considerable negative externalities it is remarkable that the whole issue of using taxes as instruments to internalise the externalities associated with nuclear power is completely neglected in the literature. The paper provides a rationale for taxing nuclear power which is based on an analysis of its social costs and of potential windfall profits for the nuclear industry generated by EU policies. After giving an overview over existing nuclear taxes in the nuclear power-generating EU countries, we elaborate the case for channelling revenues from a nuclear power tax into the EU budget as sustainability-oriented tax-based own resource replacing a part of national contributions within a fiscally neutral approach to reform the current system of own resources. Finally, the potential revenues from an EU-wide nuclear power tax are estimated.

Michael Klien (WIFO), Margit Schratzenstaller, Hans Pitlik, Einstieg in eine substantielle Stärkung der Abgabenautonomie?, in: Finanzausgleich 2017: Ein Handbuch

Öffentliches Management und Finanzwirtschaft, 2017, (19), 619 pages, http://www.nwv.at/oekonomie/1265_finanzausgleich_2017/

Åsa Gunnarsson, Margit Schratzenstaller, Ulrike Spangenberg, Gender equality and taxation in the European Union

This study provides an overview over gender aspects in taxation at member country and EU level. After an outline of gender gaps in socioeconomic realities across member countries, relevant for taxation, the implementation of gender aspects at EU and member country level and the existing legal approaches and obligations are reviewed critically. Research results on gender-disaggregated effects are presented for the taxation of personal income, corporations and business income, property, and consumption. Finally, the study presents recommendations on how to improve gender equality in taxation.
Editors: European Parliament, Directorate General "Internal Policies of the Union", Directorate A – Economic and Scientific Policy

Klaus S. Friesenbichler, Eva Selenko, Firm performance in challenging business climates. Does managerial work engagement make a difference?

Do more highly work-engaged managers contribute to firm performance? Leaning on the resource-based view, we propose managerial work engagement as a resource relevant to firm performance. Data from a representative survey of managers in Bangladesh support this and illuminate the role of the wider context in predicting work engagement. In less-corrupt environments with a more humane leadership culture, work engagement is more prevalent. In addition, individual work engagement is driven by firm-level factors and contributes independently to firm performance. This illustrates the mutual dependency between an individual manager's work engagement and microeconomic determinants of firm performance.

Karl Aiginger, Matthias Firgo, Regional competitiveness: connecting an old concept with new goals, in: Robert Huggins, Piers Thompson, Handbook of Regions and Competitiveness – Contemporary Theories and Perspectives on Economic Development

Book chapters, contributions to collected volumes, Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA, March 2017, pp.155-191, https://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781783475001.00013.xml